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The full name of IP is Internet Protocol. IP address is such a logical numeric address. By which a device is identified. This is a unique address. Each device has a different IP address. With the help of IP address, one computer in the network identifies another computer. and does data transactions. That's why a computer without an IP address cannot connect to another computer. It is a protocol of the network layer.
There are Two Different versions of IP’s.
Its full name is Internet Protocol Version 4. IPv4 started in 1981. This is a 32-bit IP address. It contains 4-Octane. Each octane has a decimal value. IPv4 is separated from (.) Dot.
For example- 192.168.43.125
Its full name is Internet Protocol Version 6. IPv6 was launched in 1999. This is a 128-bit IP address. It contains 6-Octane. Each octane has a hexadecimal value. IPv6 (:) is separated from the colon.
For example- 2001:0ab8:85a3:0000:0000:8b2e:0370:7334
There are following 2 types of IP address.
This is that IP address. Which ISP (Internet Service Provider) provides to us. This IP address is also called 'International IP Address'. This IP address identifies the user on the Internet. That is, when we use the Internet, only the Public IP address goes to every server.
Public IP addresses are also of 2 types.
This IP address is assigned to our computer, mobile and other networking devices. Private IP address works only in local network. This IP address is also called Local IP Address.
TCP/IP defines five classes of IP addresses: Class A, B, C, D, and E. Each class has a range of valid IP addresses. The value of the first octet determines the class. IP addresses from the first three classes (A, B and C) can be used for host addresses. The other two classes are used for other purposes – Class D for multicast and Class E for experimental purposes.
The system of IP address classes was developed for the purpose of Internet IP address assignment. The classes created were based on network size. For example, for small networks with a very large number of hosts, Class A was created. Class C was created for many networks with a small number of hosts.
IP address classification occurs only in IPv4.
The classes of IP address are:
The IP range of this class is from 0-126. It consists of 3-Octain of the network and 1-Octain of the host. The network mask of this class is 255.0.0.0. In this class, the network number is 125 and the host number is 16777214.
For Class A IP addresses, the first 8 bits (the first decimal number) represent the network portion, while the remaining 24 bits represent the host portion.
The range of this class is up to 128-191. It consists of 2-Octain of the network and 2-Octain of the host. The network mask of this class is 255.255.0.0. In this class, the number of network is 16382 and the number of host is 65534.
For Class B, the first 16 bits (the first two numbers) represent the network portion, while the remaining 16 bits represent the host portion.
The range of this class is up to 192-223. It consists of 1-Octain of the network and 3-Octain of the host. The network mask of this class is 255.255.255.0. The number of networks in this class is 1297150 and the number of hosts is 354.
For Class C, the first 24 bits represent the network portion, while the remaining 8 bits represent the host portion.
The range of this class is up to 224-239. IP of this class is used for Brodocosting and Multicosting.
The range of this class is up to 240-255. IP of this class is used for research and development.
Its IP address is 127.0.0.1. It is also called Localhost. These IP addresses enable server and client processes on a computer system to communicate with each other. This IP address is used by software developers or hackers for any purpose by making servers.
The system of network address limitations described here is generally bypassed today by the use of classless inter domain routing (CIDR) addresses.
There are special IP address ranges used for special purposes: